**Mitey Mouse Ate something Icky and Dide an Hydro_ic death**. A colleague's less bizarre ones: Sprite is delicious.

In this activity, you will explore four variables that quantify gases—**pressure (P), volume (V), temperature (T), and moles (n)** of gas. These four variables can be related mathematically so that predictions about gas behavior can be made.

Four quantities must be known for a complete physical description of a sample of a gas: **temperature, volume, amount, and pressure**.

A pure gas may be made up of individual atoms (e.g. a noble gas like neon), elemental molecules made from one type of atom (e.g. oxygen), or compound molecules made from a variety of atoms (e.g. carbon dioxide). A gas mixture, such as air, contains a variety of pure gases.

Gas is **a type of matter that has no defined shape or volume**. Gases can be made up of a single element, such as hydrogen gas (H_{2}), a compound, such as carbon dioxide (CO_{2}), or a mixture of several gases, such as air.

Gas Laws: **Boyle's Law, Charle's Law, Gay-Lussac's Law, Avogadro's Law**.

A gas is a state of matter with no fixed volume or shape. Examples of gases include **air, water vapor, and helium**. A gas is a state of matter that has no fixed volume or shape.**Here are examples of gases:**

- Acetylene.
- Air.
- Argon.
- Carbon dioxide.
- Carbon monoxide.
- Helium.
- Natural gas.
- Neon.

**Mitey Mouse Ate something Icky and Dide an Hydro_ic death**. A colleague's less bizarre ones: Sprite is delicious.

**In Charles law, temperature and volume of the gas are kept at constant pressure.** **Whereas in Boyle's law, pressure and volume of the gas are kept at a constant temperature**. In Boyle's law, pressure and volume vary inversely whereas, in Charles law, pressure and volume vary directly.

The factor “R” in the ideal gas law equation is known as the “gas constant”. **The pressure times the volume of a gas divided by the number of moles and temperature of the gas is always equal to a constant number**. The numerical value of the constant depends on which units the pressure volume and temperature are in.

Models, which are simplifications of the real world, **attempt to predict the behavior of a system, based on the knowledge about properties of the systems' components**. Kinetic modeling is a useful tool which gives a better understanding of mechanisms of reactions.

The kinetic molecular theory can be used **to explain each of the experimentally determined gas laws**. The pressure of a gas results from collisions between the gas particles and the walls of the container. Each time a gas particle hits the wall, it exerts a force on the wall.

The fundamental reason why there is a half in the kinetic energy formula actually comes from **special relativity from a “more complete” version of the kinetic energy formula**. The brief explanation is that this kinetic energy formula of ½mv^{2} can be considered as an approximation of special relativity.

**There are various levels of mathematics used in chemistry degrees**, ranging from combinatorics and proportional reasoning to heavy-weight differential equations and Fourier analysis.

Age 16 to 18.

Mathematics | Chemistry context |
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Algebra and graphs | Analysis of experimental plots of reaction rates; gas laws |

The five main postulates of the KMT are as follows: (1) the particles in a gas are in constant, random motion, (2) the combined volume of the particles is negligible, (3) the particles exert no forces on one another, (4) any collisions between the particles are completely elastic, and (5) the average kinetic energy of

Kinetic energy is a property of a moving object or particle and depends **not only on its motion but also on its mass**. The kind of motion may be translation (or motion along a path from one place to another), rotation about an axis, vibration, or any combination of motions.

**Average Kinetic Energy Calculator**

- Formula. K = (3/2) * (R / N) * T.
- Temperature (Kelvin)
- Gas Constant.
- Avogadro's Number.

The simplest kinetic model is based on the assumptions that: (1) the gas is composed of a large number of identical molecules moving in random directions, separated by distances that are large compared with their size; (2) the molecules undergo perfectly elastic collisions (no energy loss) with each other and with the

Kinetic Molecular Theory states that **gas particles are in constant motion and exhibit perfectly elastic collisions**. Kinetic Molecular Theory can be used to explain both Charles' and Boyle's Laws. The average kinetic energy of a collection of gas particles is directly proportional to absolute temperature only.

Kinetic energy formula**KE = 0.5 * m * v²** , where: m - mass, v - velocity.

Kinetic theory of gases proves **all the gas laws using the formula of pressure as calculated**.

Dated : 04-Jun-2022

Category : Education