Students learn that math is important in navigation and engineering. Ancient land and sea navigators started with the most basic of navigation equations (speed x time = distance). Today, **navigational satellites use equations that take into account the relative effects of space and time**.

For sailors, **celestial navigation** is a step up from dead reckoning. This technique uses the stars, moon, sun, and horizon to calculate position. It is very useful on the open ocean, where there are no landmarks.

As one of the most important branches of mathematics, trigonometry is something that every student should focus on. Great trigonometry skills **allow students to work out complex angles and dimensions in relatively little time**.

Calculus played an integral role in the development of navigation in the 17th and 18th centuries because it **allowed sailors to use the position of the moon to accurately determine the local time**. To chart their position at sea, navigators needed to be able to measure both time and angles with accuracy.

The Global Positioning System (GPS) **employs trilateration to calculate the coordinates of positions at or near the Earth's surface**. Trilateration refers to the trigonometric law by which the interior angles of a triangle can be determined if the lengths of all three triangle sides are known.

This is part of the reason that **four satellites** are needed to achieve a three-dimen- sional fix. Even though signals from three satellites are all that would be necessary to compute a position on the earth's surface, receivers actually need a signal from a fourth satellite to resolve clock ambiguities.

**Trigs are used extensively, for instance, to compute the discrete wavelet transforms in financial time series applications** (stock price evolution, volatility, ) as well as in the creation of financial simulation models, where you need to perform a lot of trigonometric decomposition operations to the large matrices

OPTIMIZING TRANSPORTATION SYSTEMS

Mathematics currently **contributes most to operational planning problems to allocate and schedule vehicles and crews**. This is important, but has a much smaller leverage than the big decisions of system design, see Fig.

Students learn that math is important in navigation and engineering. Ancient land and sea navigators started with the most basic of navigation equations (speed x time = distance). Today, **navigational satellites use equations that take into account the relative effects of space and time**.

Commercial organizations use mathematics in **accounting, inventory management, marketing, sales forecasting, and financial analysis**. It helps you know the financial formulas, fractions; measurements involved in interest calculation, hire rates, salary calculation, tax calculation etc.

It can be used for a variety of things, including: Oceanography, seismology, meteorology, physical sciences, astronomy, acoustics, navigation, electronics, and many other subjects are among them.

**BEARING TRIANGULATION**

The first GPS satellite designs were based on an idea called triangulation. This has ancient origins. In the 6th century B.C., the Greek philosopher Pythagoras discovered a math theorem that became the basis of trigonometry––which enabled substantial advancement in ship navigation.

Trigonometry is the study of triangles and the principles are fundamental in electrical engineering because it is used **to create circuits and describe the sinusoidal movement and characteristics of current and voltages in circuits**.

Trigonometry is a tool used to measure the slope or angle of a point with respect to the axis concerned. **In commerce if you pursue actuarial science or chartered accountant then you will find it in syllabus**.

Dated : 21-Jul-2022

Category : Education