The basic formula in the schedule is: **NFFi= (Ci)(Oi)(X +P)i** Where NFFi = needed fire flow (NFF) in gal per min (L/min) Ci = a construction factor that depends on the construction of the structure under consideration Oi = an occupancy factor that depends on the combustibility of the occupancy (X = P)i = an exposure

b) Freeman's formula: - **Q = 1136 ** Where, Q = Amount of water required in liter/minute.

Goodrich's formula. **P = 180*t^(-0.1)**, P = Population in thousand. t = time in days. Goodrich's formula is to find the peak demand for water.

Re = (r * V * L) / mu. The **Reynolds number** is a dimensionless number. High values of the parameter (on the order of 10 million) indicate that viscous forces are small and the flow is essentially inviscid. The Euler equations can then be used to model the flow.

“Hydraulic Conductivity” (K), in hydrogeology and hydrology, represents the capacity of a porous medium (such as soil) to transmit water, as per Darcy's Law.

The basic formula in the schedule is: **NFFi= (Ci)(Oi)(X +P)i** Where NFFi = needed fire flow (NFF) in gal per min (L/min) Ci = a construction factor that depends on the construction of the structure under consideration Oi = an occupancy factor that depends on the combustibility of the occupancy (X = P)i = an exposure

NRDWP-MIS | **National Rural Drinking Water Programme**.

One application of Darcy's law is **to water flow through an aquifer**; Darcy's law along with the equation of conservation of mass is equivalent to the groundwater flow equation, one of the basic relationships of hydrogeology. Darcy's law is also used to describe oil, water, and gas flows through petroleum reservoirs.

28. “VWSC” means the **Village Water and Sanitation Committee**, a Committee under State Panchayat Raj Act, formed by the community to plan and implement the scheme.

Per capita demand or annual average daily demand is calculated as (**Total yearly demand in litres/(365 * Design Population))**. It is measured in lpcd.

**Q = amount of water required in litres/min P = population in thousands**. ii. When population is > 2,0,000 a provision for 54600 litres/ min may be made with an extra additional provision of 9100 to 30400 litres/min for a second fire.

**20 liters per capita per day** is a minimum quantity required to realize minimum essential levels of the right, but there remain significant health concerns. To ensure the full realisation of the right, States should aim for at least 50 to 100 litres per person per day.

N/A

- Note: Units of Darcy flux and average linear velocity are the same as those used for conductivity.
- Example:
- L =100m K = 1 x 10
^{-}^{5}m/s Porosity = 30% or 0.3. - A = 5 x 10 = 50m
^{2}dh = (h_{2}- h_{1}) = (10 - 12) = -2 m. - therefore,
- i = (-2)/100 = -0.02.
- v = - (10
^{-}^{5}) x (-0.02) = 2 x 10^{-}^{7}m/s. - Q = - (10
^{-}^{5}) x (-0.02) x 50 = 1 x 10^{-}^{5}m^{3}/s.

32 483

This is often measured in **litres per person (capita) per day** (Lpcd).

a) Kuchling's formula. **Q = 3182 √p**. Where, Q = Amount of water required in liter/minute.

Q = **volumetric flow rate** (gpm) C = Roughness Coefficient. d = diameter (ft) This equation is used to design the pipes in water supply systems and irrigation systems.

Hydraulic head (often simply referred to as “head”) is **an indicator of the total energy available to move ground water through an aquifer**. Hydraulic head is measured by the height to which a column of water will stand above a reference elevation (or “datum”), such as mean sea level.

Design period is defined as **the future period for which a provision is made while planning and designing the water supply programs**. Usually, 15 to 20 years is adopted as design period.

Dated : 14-May-2022

Category : Education