Work done by gases is sometimes called pressure-volume or PV work. To calculate how much work is done (or has done to it) by the gas against a constant external pressure, we have to use an equation: **WORK= (w) = -Pexternal×△V** where external pressure is denoted by Pexternal.

The equation for calculating work done on an object when a force is applied at an angle is **W=Fdcosθ** W = F d cos where F is the magnitude of the force applied, d is the distance the object travels, and θ is the angle between the force and the distance vectors.

Because pressure is constant, the work done is **PΔV** . Recall that the formula for work is W=Fd. We can rearrange the definition of pressure, P=FA, to get an expression for force in terms of pressure. 12.4W=PAd.

Due to the fact that pressure is invariant, the formula for work done by the gas is given by: **W = p * ΔV** . Heat, however, can be calculated as: Q = ΔU + W = Cv * n * ΔT + p * ΔV = Cp * n * ΔT . Cp is known as molar heat capacity under constant pressure, and for an ideal gas is associated with Cv , so that Cp = Cv + R .

Work done by gases is sometimes called pressure-volume or PV work. To calculate how much work is done (or has done to it) by the gas against a constant external pressure, we have to use an equation: **WORK= (w) = -Pexternal×△V** where external pressure is denoted by Pexternal.

Work is **the transfer of energy by a force acting on an object as it is displaced**. The work that a force does on an object is the product of the magnitude of the force, times the magnitude of the displacement, times the cosine of the angle between them.

Calculation of Work**WA→B=∫VBVAPdV** W A → B = ∫ V A V B P dV . (This equation is derived in our Atom on “Constant Pressure” under kinetic theory. Note that P = F/A. This definition is consistent with our definition of work being force times distance. )

Answer. We know that nCr=n!/ Therefore nC0=**n!/ **

**The movement of liquids and gases** is generally referred to as "flow," a concept that describes how fluids behave and how they interact with their surrounding environment — for example, water moving through a channel or pipe, or over a surface. Flow can be either steady or unsteady.

The IC fabrication starts with the wafer preparation, oxide layer deposition or a protective layer, introducing impurities into the wafer (n-type or p-type), implantation of ions to the surface of the crystal, CVD to produce thin films, photolithography (creating a mask pattern with the help of UV light), deposition of

Political thought, or political philosophy, studies questions about **power, justice, rights, law, and other issues related to governance**. While some believe these concepts are static, political thought asks how they originated and to what effect.

Dated : 27-Jun-2022

Category : Education