**There are 3 methods of design an RCC structure:**

- Working stress method: This was the traditional method of design.
- Ultimate load method: This method is sometimes also referred to as the Load factor method.
- Limit state method:

RCC quantity in footing can be calculated by = **2 m x 2 m x 0.45 m =1.8 cum**.

1. **Working stress method (WSM)** This was the traditional method of design not only for reinforced concrete, but also for structural steel and timber design.

**Different Load Calculation on Column, Beam, Wall & Slab:**

- Column = Self Weight x Number of floors.
- Beams = Self Weight per running meter.
- Wall Load Per Running Meter.
- Total Load on Slab (Dead Load + Live Load +Wind Load + Self-Weight)

per square foot. **Total load = (½ building width x Post spacing) x (5 lbs**. dead load1 + snow load2) = 20' x 8' x (5 + 20 lbs. / square foot) = 160 square feet x 25 lbs. / square foot = 4000 lbs.

Definition. Modular ratio ( ) is **the ratio of the elastic modulus of a particular material in a cross-section to the elastic modulus of the “base” or the reference material**.

**How to Calculate Footing Size**

- Determine the width and length of the cement slab in inches.
- Divide the width by 12 to convert it to feet.
- Divide the length by 12 to convert it to feet.
- Determine the depth or thickness that is required for the footing in inches.
- Multiply the width by the length and then by the depth.

**RCC Column Design**

- Fck = 20 N/mm2.
- Fy = 500 N/mm2.
- Ag = Gross area of Column.
- Area of Steel in concrete(Asc) = (1/100) x Ag.
- Area of Concrete(Ac) = Gross area of column(Ag) – Area of steel(Asc) Ac = Ag – 0.01 Ag.
- Ac = 0.99 Ag.
- Pu = Axial load on Column (600 x 1.5) = 900 KN.

**There are 3 methods of design an RCC structure:**

- Working stress method: This was the traditional method of design.
- Ultimate load method: This method is sometimes also referred to as the Load factor method.
- Limit state method:

Iron rod size for 2 storey (G+1) building:– According to general thumb rule, we will assume a structure of G+1 (2 storey) residential building,using standard 9″ thick walls,we should use iron rod size of 10mm as mesh bar for footing, 6nos of 12mm size used for column, **4nos of 12mm** size used for beam and 10mm & 8mm iron

**If the longer span of the slab is l _{y} and the shorter span is l_{x}, then for a two-way slab, l_{y}/l_{x} is less than 2**. If the ratio is greater than 2, it is identified as a one-way slab. The two-way slabs distribute the loads in both directions. Hence, the reinforcement is provided along shorter and longer sides of the slabs.

**Steel Load Calculation**

- Size of Slab Length 3 m x 2 m Thickness 0.150 m.
- Concrete Volume = 3 x 2 x 0.15 =0.9 m³
- Concrete weight = 0.9 x 2400 = 2160 kg.
- Steel weight (1%) in Concrete = 0.9 x 0.01 x 7850 = 70.38 kg.
- Total Column weight= 2160 + 70.38 = 2230.38 kg/m = 21.87 KN/m.

A concrete mix of **1 part cement : 2 parts sand : 4 parts coarse aggregate (by volume)** should be used for footings. Concrete must be placed within half an hour of mixing.

Slab house plans are the easiest foundation type. They are **flat concrete pads poured directly on the ground**. They take very little site preparation, very little formwork for the concrete and very little labor to create.

Xam idea is **one of the best book that helps the students to prepare for the board exams this tough times**. It helps the students to revise the chapter properly. This book is up-to -date with the latest CBSE syllabus of Chemistry. It's an excellent book for both boards and other competitive exam preparation.

Simple harmonic motion is defined as **a periodic motion of a point along a straight line, such that its acceleration is always towards a fixed point in that line and is proportional to its distance from that point**. From: Newnes Engineering and Physical Science Pocket Book, 1993.

Magnesium oxide is used to make linings for some furnaces. It is known as a refractory material - which just means that it is **resistant to heat**. You may have come across this on the CIE page about ceramics. Magnesium oxide has a high melting point (2852°C) and so resists the high temperatures in a furnace.

**Survival Strategies for Economics**

- Prepare assignments before attending class. It's very important to arrive at each class having already completed assignments.
- Read for understanding.
- Attend all lectures and classes.
- Master material as you go.
- Don't take good notes
- Employ the "four" classroom behaviors.

The main purpose of adjusting entries is **to update the accounts to conform with the accrual concept**. At the end of the accounting period, some income and expenses may have not been recorded or updated; hence, there is a need to adjust the account balances.

Most people consider success as **having a great career, wealth, and respect from peers**. But, don't overlook goals that will support a happier life. Prioritizing relationships, physical health, safety, contributing to others, and creative expression have been shown to improve feelings of happiness.

To multiply algebraic fractions, **first factor the numerators and denominators that are polynomials; then, reduce where possible.** **Multiply the remaining numerators together and denominators together**. (If you've reduced properly, your answer will be in reduced form.)

Dated : 15-Jun-2022

Category : Education