A vortex is a physics phenomenon that occurs when a gas or a liquid moves in circles. At the center is a vortex line that the matter swirls around. They are formed when there is a difference in the velocity of what surrounds the line. Hurricanes, tornadoes and air moving over a plane wing are examples of vortices.
The chapter discusses the three distinct types of sedimentation—namely, discrete settling, flocculent settling, and zone settling.
Types of Surge Tanks
In large vessels with vertical agitators, the most common method of reducing swirling is to install baffles along the side of the vessel, which hinder rotational flow without disturbing radial or longitudinal flow.
Line of action of P-force is called the P-line. The P-line is nothing but the tendon line itself. The line of action of the C-force is called the C-line or Pressure line. Hence in the absence of any external bending moment the P-line and the C-line coincide.
Surge tank is provided to absorb sudden changes in water requirements and reduce water hammer and negative pressure in penstock.
Another type of hydroelectric energy plant is a diversion facility. This type of plant is unique because it does not use a dam. Instead, it uses a series of canals to channel flowing river water toward the generator-powering turbines.
Explanation: booms are the one of those structures made at the intake. they are constructed to prevent unwanted solid materials from flowing into the penstock. solid materials like icebergs, wood logs or other heavy materials which may cause damage to the turbine blades if reached there.
Hoop stress is the stress that occurs along the circumference when pressure is applied. Hoop stress acts perpendicular to the axial direction. Hoop stresses are tensile and generated to resist the bursting effect that results from the application of pressure.
The vortex bioreactor system (VBR) is a highly versatile, modular DeWaTS, which utilises suspended activated beads within a recirculating swirling flow system to facilitate downstream liquid processing and multiphase reactions.
Vortex formation in a stirred-tank improves the sinkability of powders in liquids and consequently allows the mixing of powders in liquids to form higher solids content dispersions and solutions.
For hydroelectric power uses, a surge tank is an additional storage space or reservoir fitted between the main storage reservoir and the power house (as close to the power house as possible).
The types of agitators are paddle agitators, anchor agitators, helical ribbon agitators, propeller agitators, turbine agitators, agitators with screw impellers, retreat curve impellers, hydrofoil impellers, dispersion blade impellers, and coil impellers.
When needed, surge tanks can provide a critical feature to the hydraulic design of hydropower projects. Principally, they can mitigate the overpressure effects of pressure transients or water hammer and allow turbine wicket gates to be closed faster, reducing generator overspeed after load rejections.
So, the Functions of Surge Tank is
01) To control the Pressure Variations, due to rapid changes in the pipeline flow, thus eliminating Water Hammer possibilities. 02) To regulate the flow of Water to the Turbine by providing necessary retarding Head of Water. The Surge Tanks are placed near to the Turbine.
The main function of surge tank are:
When the load decreases, the water moves backward and gets stored in it. when the load increases, an additional supply of water will be provided by the surge tank.
MCQs of Design of Water Tank (Design of Reinforced Concrete structures - 3160612) | GTU MCQ.
There are two basic types of sedimentation tank designs: the rectangular and circular designs. The rectangular tank is designed with an effluent inlet at one end of the tank and an outlet pipe for liquids that have passed through the sedimentation process at the other end of the tank.
Clarification: Swirling is a hinderance in agitated vessels and can be prevented by using Baffles appropriately, along with the turbines according to the viscosity of the fluid.
For the base slab, provide a nominal thickness of 150mm and minimum Ast of 0.3% of c/s. Provide 10mm @ 300 mm c/c along both faces, both ways.
11. What is the use of agitator in tanks? Explanation: An agitator is a device or mechanism used to put something into motion by shaking or stirring. There are several types of agitation machines, including washing machine agitators and magnetic agitator.
Dated : 27-May-2022
Category : Education